A few facts about Dr Andrew Wakefield, and his paper

1) Dr Andrew Wakefield *did not* publish a paper that claimed Vaccines caused autism. Read this over and over again. That is right, Dr Andrew Wakefield did not claim in a paper that vaccines caused Autism . Dr Andrew Wakefield has not admitted to falsifying anything. Where do people get their information from?
2) In the now famous ‘paper’ – he (along with 12 other researchers) showed that the behaviour symptoms of Autistic children were linked to their gut disorders. A very simply way of putting this is that their intestines were causing them so much pain and discomfort that it severely and seriously affected their behaviour
3) Dr Andrew Wakefield *did not* publish a paper that claimed Vaccines caused autism. Read this over and over again. That is right, Dr Andrew Wakefield did not claim in a paper that vaccines caused Autism . Dr Andrew Wakefield has not admitted to falsifying anything. Where do people get their information from?
4) 12 autistic children were refered to the Royal Free hospital , Scotland via the referral mechanisms of the British medical system. A multi disciplinary team that was treating the children found a similarity among all the children — basically they demonstrated that the autistic (behaviour issues) symptoms were related to their gut problems. Andrew Wakefield’s team basically postulated that the children’s gut symptoms and ne
urological symptoms were related.
5) Dr Andrew Wakefield *did not* publish a paper that claimed Vaccines caused autism. Read this over and over again. That is right, Dr Andrew Wakefield did not claim in a paper that vaccines caused Autism . Dr Andrew Wakefield has not admitted to falsifying anything. Where do people get their information from?
6) The team did not stop at postulating theories. Remember these kids were referred to the Royal Free. They treated the children for their intestinal disorders. What followed was nothing short of miraculous for the parents who actually were doing everything they could for their kids. The kids who had stopped developing showed slight improvements. In some of the cases, the non-verbal kids who had stopped speaking after the MMR vaccines, suddenly started saying a few words.
7) Repeat Pt1 here
8) Some of the children were found to be suffering from Chronic Measles infection — the measles had affected their nervous system. Remember they had been given the MMR vaccine – which is a vaccine containing three live viruses. Dr Wakefield wanted to establish if the virus was the wild Measles virus or the same strain that was present in the vaccine. Funding for the research was abruptly stopped since this was considered a needless ‘evangelical’ approach and a waste of funds
9) Repeat #3 here
10) Dr A.W noted that in 8 of the 12 children, the parents claimed that the children were diagnosed with Autism shortly after the MMR vaccine. When he looked for research on the subject , he realized that there wasn’t any (in fact, there still isn’t any). So he wanted to use this a *starting point* of an investigation. He mentioned this fact (the parents claim that the autism was diagnosed shortly after the MMR — 8 out of 12 was too much of a coincidence in the absence of real data you see.
11)Dr AW did not claim a link betwween Autism and vaccines. That is right, Dr Andrew Wakefield did not claim in a paper that vaccines caused Autism . Dr Andrew Wakefield has not admitted to falsifying anything – ever. Listen to the man speaking if you can. He is undoubtably a hero of our times, sacrificed his career for a cause
12) A press conference was organized to talk about the team’s findings. You see, the idea that the gut and behaviour symptoms of Autistic children was related was a major finding at that time, and the team at Royal Free was happy at the publicity and the pathbreaking nature of the study.
13) At the press conference, Dr Wakefield was asked a few pointed questions.(Paraphrased here , with my own words)
13.1) Do you believe the MMR vaccine caused the autism.
A) Its not for me to say that. 8 of the parents have claimed that, and unfortunately we don’t know enough one way or the other. This aspect should be researched — in many cases in the past, its the parents observations that have been a starting point. And I believe in listening to parents. Both my parents are Doctors and we believe in listening to parents.
13.2) Have you given your children the MMR vaccine
A) Yes
13.3) In the light of what you have seen as part of the research, would you be vaccinating your children with the MMR vaccine.
A) Unfortunately no. But I would be separately vaccinating them with the Mumps, Rubella and the Measles vaccine at separate times. I think we should not be giving multiple vaccines at one go till we have fully researched the effects

That is it. All hell broke loose after that. Of the 13 Doctors, 10 were successfully pressurized to recant their name from the study paper. 3 Doctors, Dr AW , Dr Simon Murch and Dr John Walker Smith – the head of Royal Free at the time of research, refused, standing by their findings, and denying any wrongdoings. They were all stripped of their positions at the Royal Free.
Dr Wakefield moved to Texas, and continues to reside their, doing valuable independent research on Autism.
The three Doctors above were subjected to a GMC enquiry and trial without being allowed to present their side of the story, not being allowed to call the parents as witnesses, and summary stripped of their licenses. Dr Smith and Dr Murch contested in a UK court (where normal court procedures are followed), and got the ruling overruled. Dr Wakefield has stopped clinical practice for years now. He’s currently suing Brian Deer the journalist who brought on the charges against the Doctors which led to the GMC ‘trial’


William Egan , FDA testifying on vaccines to Congressman Dan Burton

They say that Pictures say a thousand words.I would like to add to that and say, that videos sometime give away much more than pictures, and some of them are just priceless. Like this one. If you are a parent or know a parent who is considering vaccinating his/her child, I urge you to share this and bring it to the attention of parents.



Congressman Dan Burton : Mr Egan, has Thimerosal ever been tested by a health agency?
William Egan(WE) : (Clearly uncomfortable) Aaah…Its been early, in the world(slurring), those early tests that you know of, uh… that were done by, ahhhh… Eli Lily.
CDB (Interrupting) : And when was that tested? It was done in 1929.
WE : Yes
CDB (Continuing) : And lets just follow up on that.In 1929, they tested this on 27 people who were dying of meningitis . And all of them died of meningitis. And so they said, there was no correlation between their deaths, and the mercury in the vaccines. That is the only test that has ever been done on Thimerosal, that I know of. Do you know any other?
WE : No, in people , no. Except for accidental exposures over the…
CDB (Again, interrupting) : So we have mercury that has been put into people’s bodies ,and has been since the thirties, and it has never been tested by our health agencies. And yet, you folks come here , and you testify that there is no ‘conclusive evidence’ (emphasises here) and the IOM(*) says they favor, – get this – they don’t say they are sure, they say they favor rejection of a causal relationship between Mercury and Autism and other neurological disorders. Mr Egan, can you tell me right now that that amount of Mercury injected into a baby will not hurt it?
WE : Its.. You know, its, its , its impossible to (small pause) make those categorical statements that one hundred percent ….
CDB (Interjecting) : Thats right, That’s what I want you to say.
WE : (Incorrigible, almost inaudible) …..
CDB : So it *is* possible, that the amounts of mercury, when injected, even in trace amounts, could damage a child neurologically. Right?
WE : (Nodding, but still looking at the derrière of that imaginary person in front of him) I don’t think it has that capactity
CDB : ( Laughing, more like a snortish laugh) Hnnn Hnnn Hnnn
WE : I mean , you know, we can argue , but (looking at Dan burton with a smile for the 1st time)..(speech again drifts off)
CDB : I know you think it is, but you cannot say categorically, can you?
WE : Do I ? (Swallowing hard now) Do I have evidence for every single child ,for every p..possible dose, the answer is no (with emphasis)
CDB : There you go. We’ve been after this for eight years now.Progress is being made but sometimes I feel like its, its pulling a wisdom tooth, where they get in your mouth with both feet and both hands and they are jerking that tooth off.Its so hard, so hard to get it moving

At the end of this clip, in an interview Dan Burton says Why they have left it in vaccines, it is because they say it is such a minute amount that doesn’t hurt anybody. But that begs the question , the question is – Is it toxic or not? And Yes, it is! It should be out of everything that goes into the human body, and our health agencies, in my opinion have been derelict in their responsibilities in ensuring that Mercury goes out of everything that goes into the human body, especially vaccines.

If you notice, during the hearing, William Egan is constantly staring at the base of the imaginary podium in front of him, and you can make out from his expression that he’s clearly uncomfortable, trying to defend something that can’t be defended.

It is very difficult to miss after going through this video that Mercury has never been tested for safety. But if you have just heard the audio, you can’t make out the obvious discomfiture or the senior FDA official, who definitely would have loved to be somewhere else. As a parent , you have to ask yourself the question – How have these vaccines been tested for safety?

For the uninitiated, every vaccine that does not contain a live virus or bacteria contains Thimerosal. Even the so called Thimerosal free vaccines could contain upto 3mcg of mercury. Vaccines that contain live virus or bacteria will not contain Mercury.

Vaccines 101 : An introduction to vaccines

UK diseases v/s vaccines

Graph showing the decrease of morbidity rates v/s vaccinations

Whats a vaccine, anyway?

We all understand that vaccine is the common name of a set of medicines renowned for saving humanity from sureshot destruction from incurable diseases. We have been told that the vaccine prepares the body by introducing a small amount of the disease causing germs so the body learns to fight the disease. But what is that  formula that makes a vaccine, well, a vaccine, and why is there so much controversy over preventive medicine that has reversed humanity’s fall into the abyss of infectious disease and destruction? I’ll try and explain in this post, to the best of my abilities.

The active agent, aka the antigen

The goal of the vaccine is to deliver enough antigen into the body of a recipient so that the immune system recognizes the foreign object, aka the disease causing germ if it so decides to invade the body of the patient again. It is assumed , and by large accepted that the immune system of the patient remembers the disease causing organism and effectively fights it off , preventing disease.

So that’s it, a vaccine contains a small amount of antigen, that is about it, right?

Okay, now it gets a little more intricate. Thing is, you cannot put in enough antigen in a syringe and feed it to a subject and cause the immune system of the subject to produce antibodies without infecting the person. So you need something that will stimulate the immune system of the person without causing the target disase. So what do you do?

The Adjuvant

An adjuvant is a chemical that makes the immune system go on an overdrive. It accentuates the effect of the vaccine antigen. When the antigen and adjuvant are combined and injected, the body’s immune system produces much more antibodies than it would produce if the antigen were injected alone. What the antigen does is that it guarantees a better chance of the body producing antibodies to stave off the target disease. Essentially the adjuvant makes the body generate much more antibodies that it would have, without it.

Cool, so our vaccine would contain the Antigen+Adjuvant, that is about it, right?

Somewhat. The above duo would be considered ‘active’ ingredients of the vaccine. But, you need an effective medium to keep them in, right? So you have excipients, a  medium  and a stabilizer – essentially ingredients that would make our  vaccine uniform so that the contents don’t wary bottle to bottle.

Do we have our vaccine yet?

Well, almost. Now  that we have concocted this amazing life-saving substance, we need to preserve it. After all, fungi, bacteria and random contaminants lurk everywhere.  We need to ensure that microbial contamination should not take place in the above life-saving mixture, right? How to preserve stuff? Simple, add a preservative.

All vaccine contains a preservative

To ensure that the contents of a vaccine does not change over time, a preservative is added to the vaccine.

To summarize

 A vaccine contains four ingredients

  1.  The antigen – This could be surface proteins expressed by the target organism, killed cells from the vaccine, even live attenuated disease organisms (vaccine or bacteria)
  2.  Adjuvant – To force the body to increase the antibody production in response to the vaccine
  3.  Stabilizers, excipients, etc added to make the vaccine uniform.
  4.  The preservative.

So what’s the big deal? why is there so much controversy over vaccines

Claim # 1 Vaccines induce an immunity by stimulating the body ‘s immune system to produce antibodies against a target antigen.

The latter is definitely true. The problem is , we have just believed that because the body’s immune system develops an antibody, that helps the body fight the disease. While this claim has been established as fact in the minds of the vaccine promoters, and pretty much every body who believes in a vaccine’s ability to stave off a target disease, this has never been established through a trial. Basically, this claim has never been proved.  As outrageous and absurd as it might sound, the idea that antibody production following a vaccine prevents or mitigates infection from the target organism has never been established through a trial. In fact, such a trial has never been designed. Whenever a vaccine has failed to work in the past, the outcome has never been to question the vaccine, but to come up with what is essentially an arbitrary timeframe of the vaccine’s effectiveness based on some statistical analysis. And the recommendation has been to add a booster of the vaccine to supposedly boost the immune system against the target disease.

Claim #2 Vaccines are inherently safe.

You walk into a Doctor’s office , the Doctor examines your kid, and the Doctor recommends a vaccine. Its not a vaccine that is Government recommended, but your peadiatrician tells you ‘Why take chances?’ – Sounds familiar.  The subliminal context here is that the vaccine is safe , and that assumption is made both by the Doctor and the patient.

What is the issue then?

Both of the above claims have *never been verified*. That is a fundamental contention between the pro and anti sides of the vaccine debate. Nobody disputes the idea that a vaccine induces antibodies, at least in a good majority of the recipients. Whether this does help or not is pure conjecture. But unfortunately organized medicine places a premium on the belief that somehow the body learns to fight the disease because, duh , it has responded to the vaccine. There never has been a test that has proven that the vaccine prevents or mitigates the target disease in any way.

So why does the body respond to the vaccine

If you inject a mixture of chemicals and biological agents, it is but natural that the body will attack the invasive organo-chemical entity. Its downright absurd to *assume* without clear proof that the bodies’ response to the constituents of the vaccine indicates that the body is capable of fighting the target disease.

But… haven’t we eradicated diseases due to vaccines. At least that is what we have always learnt.

This is a very good demonstration of indoctrination at an early age. Generally we grow up believing as fact whatever we learn as kids. The following facts are very relevant here

  1.  Most diseases ceased to be killers before mass vaccination was introduced
  2.  Death rate from Measles, Mumps, Whooping Cough,Diptheria were down to a negligible number by the turn of the century.
  3.  Small pox was not eradicated before mass vaccination. But there were entire villages which came down with many smallpox cases despite vaccination,whereas there were instances were unvaccinated people did not get the disease.
  4.  Claims of Polio eradication are not valid. Publicly available statistics show that the number of paralysis cases actually increase when the number of Polio vaccines are increased.

The Chingleput study, what is that?

About the only genuine population study done on vaccines happenned in Chingleput district in Tamil Nadu. The Government of India wanted to figure out how much immunity was provided by the BCG vaccine, since India was (and is) a Tuberculosis endemic country. About 300000+ people were followed up from childhood to adulthood. About a 1/rd received one variant of the BCG vaccine, another third another variant, and a third were never vaccinated. At the end of 15 years, the number of TB cases were tabulated from the three groups, it was found there was no significant variation either of the number of cases or the deaths.

Are vaccines safe?

Officially,all vaccines are considered safe and effective. That’s why they are in many vaccine schedules.

How is this safety determined?
Well the vaccine manufacturer submits the safety data to the authorities (FDA) and the FDA reviews it. This data is proprietary stuff, not tbe shared among the general public. But here are some interesting bits of information that can be verified with some help

  •  The Measles vaccine is determined safe enough by the following way. Its injected into the hypothalmus of a group of rhesus macaques , and if a certain number of them survive, then its safe. And yes, if it fails once, apparently you can redo it till you get a successful result
  •  Mumps vaccine produced from the Urabe strain of the virus tends to cause meningnitis. However, this does not happen till beyond 21 days of the injection. So how is a mumps vaccine safety tested for meningnitis. Simple. The cut-off date is about 18 days or so. So if the Mumps vaccine recipient does not go down with meningnitis before 18 days, the vaccine is safe
  •  A version of the Tetanus vaccine is determined safe, if , when injected into a bunch of mice, a certain percentage of them survive.

So how come most Doctors and Paediatrician insist on so many vaccines

Simply because they are told to. Every country has a recommended schedule. Paediatricians are duty bound to recommend that schedule. In India, there are two separate schedules. The Govt sanctioned and  subsidized official one is called the Universal Immunization Scheme. This includes the BCG, 3 doses of DPT , 3 doses of Polio (now the number of doses is much more than 3, thanks to the routine Polio Sunday’s that are held all the time)

So how come we don’t have enough people questioning vaccines

Difficult to answer this one. There are two standard outcomes of regularly vaccinating children.

  •  There is some immediate reaction to the vaccine. Based on the vaccine it could be fever, or some infection following the days of the vaccine. Most parents are told that there would be some fever, and are encouraged to control the fever using standard fever medicine. So they tend to ignore it.
  •  Child frequently falls ill. In this case, parents have not really learnt to connect the vaccinations with the frequent episodes of illness of their child. One real problem is that there aren’t too many unvaccinated children around, so sometimes despite misgivings, parents tend to do what everyone else does  – namely vaccinating their children with as many vaccines as they can afford, or what the Doctor recommends.

But why is a vaccine dangerous.

Simple. It contiains ingredients known and *proven* to be toxic and dangerous. I’ll just list 3 of them below

  • Thimerosal – A mercury compound. Used as a preservative. Damages the brains and can cause cancer.  Officially they say the amount is too low to be unsafe. That is not based on any testing. A standard vaccine can contain 25micrograms which is above the limit for an adult (and its given to a small infant)
  • Formaldehyde  – Used as a preservative, and to *weaken* strains of the disease causing organism.
  • Aluminium Hydroxide. – Used as an adjuvant. Also a known toxic compound, Aluminum has been linked to Alzheimers’ among other things

But , if you can show that vaccines are unsafe, the you could sue the vaccine manufacturers, right?

No, most countries have passed legislations that explicitly absolve anybody involved in the business of delivering vaccines (manufacturers, doctors, nurses- anybody in the chain) from any civil or criminal damages.

*Disbelief* This sounds so conspiracy theorist

Given the nature of the issue, that is rather unfortunate. There is enough data for you to dig into , to make your own decisions. You don’t have to believe anybody in any side of the debate. Given the facts that I have detailed above, your best bet is to do some research on your own. But please be vary of emphatic statements without any data to back it up. Whatever I’ve posted here is verifiable.


I’ve tried to summarize what a vaccine is, for the general public, especially parents of children so that they have a starting point to try and understand what vaccines are all about.  I’ve avoided going into too much detail because I wanted to keep it short and simple. I’ll go into detail in future posts.

References and suggested reading/viewing

Senator Dan Burton talks about Autism and Thimerosal. Also shows a peek into Autistic children.

Vaccine nation, a documentary about vaccines.

This covers the following

  1. The thimerosal use in vaccines
  2. Shaken baby syndrome and vaccines
  3. SIDS and vaccines

Alan Yurko was wrongly convicted of killing his baby by shaking. This conviction was later overturned when the death was shown to be caused by injuries due to convulsions from vaccination.

Try and get a copy of “The Greater Good” movie. This is not available online due to copy right issues,but you can try searching youtube for snippets. There is a facebook page for the movie


This is a documentary with a fairly balanced narrative on the topic. It tries not to take sides and covers the history of vaccines, how they started off as a public health initiative, but how they have ended up harming people as well.

  1. Documents dangers of vaccines
  2. Vaccines are not independently studied
  3. Features Dr Wakefield and his work on Autistic Children

This documentary looks at vaccine injuries in US, Canada and France, and it has been made by a Canadian film-maker. It talks about how difficult it is to get injury compensation in the US if somebody gets injured from a vaccine. It features adults who have been injured by the vaccines, and their stories.

I decided against posting a lot of links to medical journals, since I wanted the narrative of this particular blog post to be as simple as possible, and to that extent, I’ve tried and avoided the use of any medical-sounding terminology. Together with what I have written above and the documentaries I have referenced, there is enough material for anybody to begin the process of trying to understand vaccines. I’ve also tried to restrict myself to the very basic science of vaccines. Vaccines have been documented to cause a whole lot of problems, but I’ll leave those to another blog.

How to advertise for a flu shot

Here is Piers Morgan, the CNN anchor getting the flu shot on live TV to demonstrate that it is harmless.

Here is the same hero , doing an about turn about 10 days later.

So at least we have one person educated, real time. Need I say anything more?

PS: I’ve been wanting to start posting about vaccines here, but I tend to put too much time and effort into my posts, so have been holding off, when I can afford to spend the time. But this was a nice bolt from the blue. What better advertisement do you need for the flu shot?

Do Boond Zindagi ke

Do Boond Zindagi Ke. This is the title of the popular advertisement encouraging parents to vaccinate their children with more and more doses of the live Polio vaccine. The Polio virus first enters the body through contaminated food and water, and infects the gastrointestinal tract. In about 1% of the infected , it enters the Central Nervous system. And in very small children, where the Nervous system is still developing it causes paralysis and weakness of muscles. That condition is called Acute Flaccid Paralysis.

The oral Sabin vaccine is developed by infecting Monkey kidneys, letting the virus multiply and then supposedly weakening it by passing through multiple Monkey kidney cells. The mechanism of the vaccine is supposedly this. Children are given 2 drops of the vaccine , containing two types of the live Polio Virus. The virus replicates in the gut but is not able to cross the CNS barrier. But what about children who are already ill or whose immune systems are already weakened? It stands to reason that they would be infected and possibly contract Polio and further paralysis. As it turns out, this is exactly what happens in some cases, and this condition is called VAPP . You can search the web for VAPP.

Even though it is described as rare, it is quite common in India. In fact , studies don’t really go into factors of hygiene and living conditions of the poor in India, where one child who is given the Oral vaccine passes the virus in his stool, and the virus would have mutated into a virulent strain. Other children, through consuming contaminated water containing the virus in this stool, can develop Polio, which could be incorrectly identified as Wild Polio.

Any claim that wild Polio has been eradicated should be benchmarked against actual harm caused by the vaccine. It is a pretty hollow victory when you congratulate yourself for elimination of a disease but ignore the significant harm done by the vaccine. Polio is after all , a disease spread by poor hygiene and nutrition.

The other interesting thing is that the vaccine can also be contaminated by viruses that infect monkey kidney cells , the most famous among them being the SV40 virus (short for Simian Virus 40) – so called because it was the 40th virus identified from monkeys. This virus is a known human carcinogen (cancer causing agent), that was linked to significant increases of blood cancer among children as young as 2 years of age. This has even been acknowledged by the creator of the Oral Polio vaccine, Dr Albert Sabin.
The SV40 foundation site

Now let us get to the present and see the truth or lack of it behind the claim of eradication of the Polio Virus.

Dr Jacob Puliyel, is a very reputed Paediatrician and Head of Paediatrics at St Stephen’s hospital , Delhi
( St Stephens Hospital ).

He is also part of the National Technical Advisory Group on Immunization. Someone who has been quite involved in our national immunization program. He obtained data about Polio and AFP (Acute Flaccid Paralysis) through the RTI. This data has measured polio cases, AFP due to Polio , AFP not due to wild polio , and number of doses of the vaccine administered. Here is a link to that document.

Cumulative data over a decade

The data can be difficult to read, but I’ll try to briefly explain. Non polio AFP is typically considered acceptable if it is at the rate of 2 children per a population of 100000. Meaning if out of 1 lakh subjects, 2 could suffer from AFP. Columns number 6 contain non-polio AFP rates,and column 7, expressed as a rate per 100000.
The very last column contains the list of *excess* non-polio AFP cases, something that cannot be just explained away, since we are so aggressively vaccinating children with more and more doses of *live* polio viruses. If you just add up the figures of excess Non-Polio AFP from UP and Bihar for 2011, you get the rather encouraging number of 34977 cases of paralysis. You can also see that the number of cases is steadily increasing along with the increasing number of doses of the polio vaccine.

Without any real investigation of this number, how can you claim the routine vaccinations to be a success story? What is really left unsaid , from this data is that the Polio vaccine is causing paralysis for a rather extreme majority of the cases. It is really important not to be swayed by catchy advertisments of “Do Boond Zindagi ke”.

Death of a 16 year old

I wanted to create a separate blog for commenting on contemporary issues,especially medicine, which forms a good part of my interests. I did not expect to start this blog on such a chilling note. On Christmas evening at 6pm, a 16year old boy staying in my apartment complex, got knocked down by a speeding vehicle, sustained minor bruises all over his body, but severe head injuries. He passed away today (Dec 28th) morning, succumbing to brain damage.  Apparently the damage in his brain was diffused, making any surgical intervention futile.  I don’t personally know the child, but most people tell me that he was very likeable guy. There is a general pall of gloom all over here. My heart really goes out to the parents.  I lost my father 4 years back, and mother 12 years back. Its incredibly difficult to get over the death of a near and dear one.  If that person happens to be somebody you have raised for 16 years, it can be extremely gut-wrenching. I don’t think I can even pretend to think what would go on the minds of the parents. My heart-felt condolences to them. From personal experience, time helps you deal with it better, though I don’t think you ever get over death.

What really gets my goat is that such an incident is totally avoidable. There is no speed-breaker near our exit gates, and the place where  the boy got knocked  over, there is no pavement.The car smashed him into a wall, and smashed the wall over. There are enough places in Bangalore where there is no space for pedestrians, and all those are ticking time bombs  waiting for an incident like this to happen.There are shops down the road which looked like they have intruded to the pavement as well. I think we need to put speedbreakers at all roads where pedestrians have to walk.


The damaged wall, the impact of the Santro just blew the wall away. 

Damaged wall

Smashed wall,  2nd iteration


No pavement here, pedestrians are at the mercy of speeding motorists.

No pavement